Department of Intercultural Studies

view dept. website http://www.houghton.edu/intercultural/department-of-intercultural-studies/

Marcus W. Dean, Chair and Area Associate Dean

585.567.9634
Overview

The mission of the Intercultural Studies Department is to prepare Christians to respond to key problems of global concern in culturally relevant ways that follow kingdom principles. The Department offers two majors, Intercultural Studies and International Development, both drawing heavily on the methodologies and perspectives of anthropology and related social sciences, integrating the theory of cross-cultural development work with experiential learning in cross-cultural settings. These majors will provide competence for students seeking to serve in such fields as community development, relief work, health services, education, missions, and Bible translation in developing countries, multi-cultural contexts in the US, and the inner-city context.  Both majors and the minors prepare students for today’s multicultural job market and mutual learning across cultures.

Concentrations for the Intercultural Studies major are optional. If a concentration is not selected, students will need to choose two electives .

Students completing the International Development major will need to complete either an approved second major, or two approved minors to build a skill set for addressing development problems and potentials.

Self-designed minors can be developed to compliment the major for interests for which there are no concentrations.

Students interested in Education with an Intercultural concentration, please see the Education section of this catalog.

Faculty
Robert A. Black David A. Brubaker Marcus W. Dean Richard K. Eckley
Benjamin Hegeman JooYoung Hong Asher JohnNdunge Kiiti
Eli J. Knapp Kristina LaCelle-Peterson Don B. Little Ronald J. Oakerson
Jamie L. Potter
Courses
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ANTH 195, 295, 395 Special Topics

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

ANTH 243 Cultural Anthropology (CDRP, see Foreign Languages)

4-F

Cultural and social aspects of human behavior; comparison of cultures. Community: Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 256 History, Religion, & Society of the Mekong Region

3-F&S

This course provides an introduction of the historical and social context of the Mekong subregion of South East Asia and explores the dynamics between religious, political, and other social foundations and contemporary forces of change. The course begins with a survey of the major religions of the region (chiefly Buddhism and tribal Animism) and their enduring influence of worldview and culture. The course proceeds with a survey of regional history from ancient times (including the Lana kingdom, of particular significance to Chiang Mai’s heritage) through nation building and international relations to the emergence of globalization. Students will be guided to explore the influence of intangible factors on tangible institutions and historical events. The course includes several excursions to nearby sites and guest lectures to ground the knowledge of the Mekong region with an experiential sense of place and perspective. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 291, 391, 491 Independent Studies

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

ANTH 293 East African Cultures

4-S

Intensive study of East African ethnic groups – their beliefs, behaviors, work, societies. Lectures, which include foundational anthropological theory as well as ethnic descriptions, are augmented by observations and home stays amongst the Massai, Kelenjin, Murle, Hehe or other peoples. Sociology, Intercultural Studies elective credit. Houghton in Tanzania Program. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 296 Special Topics in Anthropology

2 or 4-WSP

Topics offered according to interest and demand. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 310 Intercultural Competencies

4-F&S

Explores the knowledge, attitudes, and skills for transitioning into, adapting to, working in, and functioning successfully in an intercultural context. Key topics include cultural values, intercultural communication, researching culture, being a change agent, dealing with conflict, and working with individuals from another culture. Prerequisite for INCL majors/minors: Introduction to Global Issues and Cultural Anthropology, or permission of instructor. Required for INCL 311. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 315 Human Ecology

4-F

Integrates knowledge from several disciplines and seeks to combine the social and natural sciences. Theory will be interwoven with basic concepts and emphasis will be upon how humans view—and interact with—the natural environment. Themes and topics to be studied include: control, complexity/simplification, sustainability, adaptation, place, mechanization, efficiency/inefficiency, centralization/decentralization, resilience, parks, economies of scale, specialization/diversification, and poverty. These themes will be discussed in relation to five basic human societies: hunting & gathering, pastoral, agricultural, industrial, and global. Houghton in Tanzania Program.

ANTH 340 African Traditional Culture and Religion

3-F&S

Fast traveling means and fast communication have shrunk the world into almost one village. However, the ease of contact does not necessarily mean ease of mutual understanding and it has become imperative to understand other cultures to be able to relate to each other as human beings. The aim of this course is to provide the students with the academic tools for social and cultural analysis with a specific focus on the African traditional culture and religion in general with a special emphasis and examples drawn from the Rwanda culture and religion. The course will explore some of the characteristics of the African cultures and traditional religions, the values and social perspectives they vehicle and it will look at the influence of those cultures on the receptivity to Christianity, Islam and development. Liberal Arts

ANTH 350 Culture Change and Its Effects on Traditional Societies

4-F

Globalization is spreading rapidly around the world, and this is causing significant culture change to traditional societies. With a strong focus on history and case studies, this course will make students aware of what is happening and give them the theoretical knowledge to understand, empathize with, and assist people who are wrestling with change. Pre- or Co-requisite: Cultural Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

ARAB 101 Arabic Language

4-WSP

Arabic is spoken in various regional dialects throughout the Arab world. This class introduces Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the commonly understood language used in all media and the academic and intellectual community. While MSA is not the “street language” of any particular country, it provides an excellent grounding towards fluency in any particular dialect in the Arab world. Those who wish to go beyond this one semester introduction will be directed to an intensive Arabic program within the Arab world.

IDEV 312 Field Experience in Development

2-4-F&S, M, Summer

A cross-cultural experience in an approved setting in the area of International Development. Preliminary studies and research, the dynamics of living and serving, ongoing mentorship, and periodic reflection will result in the student completing an analysis of the development work experienced in relation to its cultural context. The student will also keep a journal during the experience and write a summary paper on the experience in the culture. This experience may be linked to formal study-abroad programs, official internship affiliation, or pre-approved individual arrangements. Note: Please consult with INCL Department regarding requirements for this course before planning your experience. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 310

IDEV 338 Issues in Development

4-S17

Introduces students to key issues in the development field. Themes such as the environment, global health, conflict, poverty and globalization will be examined for insights into topics including holistic development; asset based approaches and methods; social-economic issues; systems and structures (church, NGOs, international institutions, and governments); policy development; and monitoring and evaluation. Designed within an international development framework. Examines individual, community, and institutional issues. Liberal Arts.

IDEV 345 Community Organization and Development

4-F16

A comparative study of how local communities organize themselves to manage natural resources and provide collective goods and sources, with a focus on developing countries. Considers issues related to decentralization and sustainable development. Emphasis on analytic approaches to problem-solving. Liberal Arts.

IDEV 346 Governance and Development

4-F15

A study of patterns of governance and politics typical of developing countries with an emphasis in relation-ships between governance and development. Liberal Arts.

IDEV 347 Development Communication and Grant Writing

4-F15

Examines the various theories, methods/approaches, and processes that are used in the development communication field. Case studies will be drawn from many development themes including global health (HIV/ AIDS), agriculture, poverty and environment. Emphasis and focus will be on basic principles and values of development communication that challenge the dominant paradigm. Liberal Arts.

IDEV 348 Foundations of Health Development

4-May WSP

Explores spiritual, historical, cultural, environmental, economic and political factors that often determine the health of individuals and populations. Case studies and experiences will be drawn from all regions of the world with a focus on interventions at community, national and international levels. Topics range from community health development principles, concepts of holism to national and international health policy and partnership issues. Liberal Arts.

IDEV 389, 489 Intercultural/International Development/Linguistics Internship

1-4-F, S, M, Summer

A practical internship with an organization or ministry that connects service with an intercultural or multicultural setting. Student is to demonstrate the integration of learning and service. Possible for Intercultural, Development, or Linguistics credits. By application only. Can only be done once the required Intercultural/Field Experience has been met. May be repeated.

IDEV 484 Integrative Senior Seminar

4 or 6-F&S

Student will participate in the Senior Seminar for the INCL major and the companion major. In cooperation with the advisor of each major the student will develop one research project that meets the requirements for each major.

INCL 322 History of Islamic Theology and Movements

4-WSP

Following the death of Muhammad, issues of theological orthodoxy and governmental orthopraxy flourished in a context of conflict and growth. Students will appraise the historical developments of Muhammad’s life and his revelations in the areas of theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, governance, literature, and culture. Relying on primary sources and historical disciplines, students will study the wide history of Islamic thought up until the OPEC crisis of 1973-74. Students will gain a confidence in grasping and discerning the many variants within the so-called unified Islamic ummah. Liberal Arts.

INCL 195, 295, 395, 495 Special Topics

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Topics offered according to interest and demand. Liberal Arts.

INCL 201 Introduction to Global Issues

4-F&S

Focuses on current global trends and issues. Students examine responsible alternatives seen from an interdisciplinary perspective based on biblical justice and mission. Topics include: poverty, disease, hunger, under-development, illiteracy, corruption, climate change, environmental degradation, religious and ethnic conflict. Students examine responses by global Christians both individually and collectively. This is the entry level course for the Intercultural Studies major. Liberal Arts.

INCL 211 Intercultural Transition and Adjustment

1-F&S

Using the transition model for adjusting to another culture, the student is prepared to move into and adjust to another culture and to gain a basic understanding of the culture. Cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural conflict, and cultural values are also examined as they relate to living and working in another culture. Required for Spanish and French majors (they may take the INCL 310 course) and encouraged for any student going on a study abroad experience. Is usually offered as a part of INCL 310 or may be offered as a course by itself in Mayterm. Liberal Arts.

INCL 243 Cultural Anthropology (CDRP, see Foreign Languages)

4-F

Cultural and social aspects of human behavior; comparison of cultures. Community: Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

INCL 254 African Cultural Arts

3-F&S

This course explores the African arts as both cultural expression and cultural epistemology (a way of engaging and knowing the world that differs from Western empiricism and consumerism). It provides hands-on experience of the ways in which the arts can serve as agent of cultural preservation as well as cultural transformation. It seeks to guide students in the exploration of the spiritual, philosophical, social, and psychological drivers of the cultural arts in order to gain a deeper appreciation of diversity and human creativity. Students will be introduced to a broad array of artistic expression and media in Africa under the guidance of local experts and artistes (e.g. visual arts, music, hand crafts, culinary arts, dance, storytelling, and other performing arts). Students will come to appreciate the unique role and effectiveness of the arts in culture (e.g. prophetic confrontation of injustice in the status quo, or communicating in ways that overcome linguistic barriers, etc.) and gain a new sense of the irreducible value of the arts for life and development. The course has high emphasis on participation and reflection. Culture: Art. Liberal Arts.

INCL 255 Thai Cultural Arts

3-F&S

This course explores the Thai arts as both cultural expression and cultural epistemology (a way of engaging and knowing the world that differs from Western empiricism and consumerism). It provides hands on experience of the ways in which the arts can serve as an agent of preservation as well as an agent of transformation in culture. It seeks to guide students in the exploration of the spiritual, philosophical, social, and psychological drivers of the cultural arts in order to gain a deeper appreciation of diversity and human creativity. Students will be introduced to a broad array of artistic expression and media in Thailand under the guidance of local experts and artists (including visual arts, music, hand crafts, culinary arts, dance, Likay, and other performing arts). Students will come to appreciate the unique role and effectiveness of the arts in culture (e.g. prophetic confrontation of injustice with the status quo, or communicating in ways that overcome linguistic barriers, etc.) and gain a new sense of value of the arts for their life and work. The course has a high emphasis on participation and reflection. Culture: Art. Liberal Arts.

INCL 256 History, Religion, & Society of the Mekong Region

3-F&S

This course provides an introduction of the historical and social context of the Mekong subregion of South East Asia and explores the dynamics between religious, political, and other social foundations and contemporary forces of change. The course begins with a survey of the major religions of the region (chiefly Buddhism and tribal Animism) and their enduring influence of worldview and culture. The course proceeds with a survey of regional history from ancient times (including the Lana kingdom, of particular significance to Chiang Mai’s heritage) through nation building and international relations to the emergence of globalization. Students will be guided to explore the influence of intangible factors on tangible institutions and historical events. The course includes several excursions to nearby sites and guest lectures to ground the knowledge of the Mekong region with an experiential sense of place and perspective. Liberal Arts.

INCL 260 Introduction to Islamic Foundations

4-WSP

Muhammad’s life and writings are the foundations of Islam. The Islamic faith will be appraised through a historical and primary source approach where students will read through the entire Qur’an in chronological fashion and a significant portion of the Hadiths. The students’ mastery of Muhammad’s life, of Quranic vocabulary and a confident grasp of Quranic theology will give them a strategic appreciation of Islamic history and the present global Muslim community issues. Liberal Arts.

INCL 291, 391, 491 Independent Studies

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

INCL 305 Introduction to Sustainable Community Development

4-

This course explores how knowledge of ecological systems, globalization, political economy, and the biblical worldview come together in the pursuit of development that is community-minded, just, and ecologically sustainable. Through readings, lectures and fieldtrips, studentsstudy complex issues in sustainable development such as the nexus of poverty, the environment, and justice, and the many practical challenges associated with sustainable community development. (Major/minor credit for Sociology, INCL elective or optional elective for Development Concentration, or general elective).

INCL 310 Intercultural Competencies

4-F&S

Explores the knowledge, attitudes, and skills for transitioning into, adapting to, working in, and functioning successfully in an intercultural context. Key topics include cultural values, intercultural communication, researching culture, being a change agent, dealing with conflict, and working with individuals from another culture. Prerequisite for INCL majors/minors: Introduction to Global Issues and Cultural Anthropology, or permission of instructor. Required for INCL 311. Liberal Arts.

INCL 311 Intercultural Experience

0-4-F&S, May, Summer

A cross-cultural experience in an approved setting in an area of service related to student’s concentration or field of interest. Preliminary studies and research, the dynamics of living and serving, ongoing mentorship, and periodic reflection will result in the student completing a cultural profile, journal and summary paper on the experience. This experience may be linked to formal study-abroad programs, official internship affiliation, or pre-approved individual arrangements. Note: Please consult with INCL Department regarding requirements for this course before planning your experience. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 310

INCL 314 Exclusion and Exploitation: Marginal people of the Mekong

3-F&S

This course examines the exclusion and exploitation of people in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Topics to be covered include: Identifying the various groups of people who are marginalized in the GMS and the basis of their exclusion (including race, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship, gender, religion, economic status, and other factors); Describing the types of injustice faced (including poverty, human rights violations, discrimination, prejudice, genocide, persecution, labor exploitation, trafficking, prostitution, forced migration of IDPs, refugees and economic refugees); Examining the history, context and causes of exclusion and exploitation; and analyzing indigenous, governmental, NGO, and faith-based responses. Liberal Arts.

INCL 319 Cross- Cultural Field Practicum

3-F&S

This course is designed to give students hands on cross-cultural experience with community development work in East Africa. Students will be exposed to international development and relief programs, have the opportunity to work in cross-cultural work environments, and to contribute meaningfully to their assigned program. Students will begin to assess their own ability to live and work in cross-cultural settings as well as be introduced to the challenges faced in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberal Arts

INCL 340 African Traditional Culture and Religion

3-F&S

Fast traveling means and fast communication have shrunk the world into almost one village. However, the ease of contact does not necessarily mean ease of mutual understanding and it has become imperative to understand other cultures to be able to relate to each other as human beings. The aim of this course is to provide the students with the academic tools for social and cultural analysis with a specific focus on the African traditional culture and religion in general with a special emphasis and examples drawn from the Rwanda culture and religion. The course will explore some of the characteristics of the African cultures and traditional religions, the values and social perspectives they vehicle and it will look at the influence of those cultures on the receptivity to Christianity, Islam and development. Liberal Arts

INCL 341 Biblical Foundations of Global Christian Service

4-wsp

An examination of the biblical foundations of mission based on the concept of missio dei (God’s mission). The course explores the extensive Old Testament roots and the New Testament development of mission with special relevance to global Christian service in missions and other cross-cultural venues. Issues and theological themes of significance to these areas of Christian service are explored.

INCL 342 Contextualization in Missions

4-WSP

Study of the interaction of the biblical message as it comes to life within a cultural context. The primary focus is on the church, but includes the broader understanding of the kingdom of God. Areas of study include theology, leadership, worship, ministry and kingdom living. Both past and present ideas of contextualization are covered. Liberal Arts.

INCL 345 Peacebuilding: Genocide and Religious Diversity

3-F&S

This course explores issues of peace building and reconciliation in the Great Lakes region. While the primary focus is on the Rwandan context, other conflicts and situations in the region are also addressed. Students will study issues in the healing of trauma (both personal and social), the processes of building peace, and establishing reconciliation in Rwanda. The history of Rwanda is important to understanding the basis of genocide. As students learn about the reconstruction process they will discover the roles played by the state, the church, and non-governmental organizations. The role of the international community both during the genocide and during the rebuilding process will be discussed. Students will also discuss the increasing presence of religious diversity. Students will have opportunities to interact with individuals who experienced these human tragedies as well as those who are at the forefront of reconciliation work in the country. Liberal Arts

INCL 350 Culture Change and Its Effects on Traditional Societies

4-F

Globalization is spreading rapidly around the world, and this is causing significant culture change to traditional societies. With a strong focus on history and case studies, this course will make students aware of what is happening and give them the theoretical knowledge to understand, empathize with, and assist people who are wrestling with change. Pre- or Co-requisite: Cultural Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

INCL 361 Engaging the Muslim World

4-WSP

For over 1400 years, Islam and Christendom have frequently engaged in rival forms of civilization encounters and/or clashes: invasions, polemics, diplomacy, colonization, dialogue, commerce, and academic research, each according to the context of the era. Relying on comparative, historical and missiological methodologies, students will study the ever-changing yet often-repeated approaches to Muslims in chronological appearance and from various Christian communities: the Oriental churches, the Byzantine Orthodox churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches, with a special emphasis on the current Evangelical ‘contextualized’ approaches. Students will gain a strong confidence and learn wise diplomacy in sharing Jesus to Muslims in a wide variety of means. This course has a fee. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 260

INCL 381 Social Context for Community Development

3-F&S

As this is a course looking at the social context of community development, we will begin our discussions by looking at society, its structure and a variety of social contexts. We will then examine poverty, worldviews, and a continuum of development practices. We will discuss a variety of tools and hopefully come up with a few new ones before our field visits toward the end of the course. There will be short writing assignments given through-out the course, each designed to help you think through the material presented. You will have a final project due at the end of the course. We will discuss topics for same during the first week of class. The last two class days will be dedicated to giving presentations based on your final papers. Liberal Arts

INCL 389, 489 Intercultural/International Development/Linguistics Internship

1-4-F, S, M, Summer

A practical internship with an organization or ministry that connects service with an intercultural or multicultural setting. Student is to demonstrate the integration of learning and service. By application only. Can only be done once the required Intercultural/Field Experience has been met. May be repeated.

INCL 440 Unorthodox and Folk Islam

4-WSP

Classical Islam is very resistant to creative theological variants within the Islamic ummah and brands them as deviant heresies, of which Folk Islam is the most common expression. Yet ‘unorthodox’ expressions, even so-called ‘secular Islam’, are far more prevalent forms of Islam among the youth and womenfolk than the orthodox interpretations, and Houghton students and graduates are far more likely to encounter these unorthodox expressions. This requires our students to grasp the diverse roots of widespread Islamic heterodoxy, syncretism, occult expressions, spiritual warfare, and secularism. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 260

INCL 441 Islam in North America

4-M WSP

The Islamic movements in North America are unique in being both very recent and limited to Afro-Americans and immigrants. That is changing given that international funding for a vibrant political Islam in America is among the strongest in emerging religions. Students will explore the various sociological expressions, their political aspirations and their texts. Special attention will be given to various Christian ministries to Muslims in North America. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 260

INCL 442 Globalization and Islamization

4-WSP

Among the three most vibrant international movements in the emerging 21st century are Christianity, Islam and Globalization, and the most contested nexus are in the techno-secularized cities of the world. Students will focus specifically on the post-colonial conflicts and integration efforts of Muslims in the global communities, and the impact of Globalization on Islamic societies. Attention will be given to recent international clashes between globalized secularism and Muslims, various political and Christian responses and the need for a Christ-centered confident response to both Globalization and Islamization. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 260

INCL 482 Senior Capstone: Intercultural Seminar

2-F&S

Joint weekly discussion sessions of all senior majors aimed at reflection on critical broad principles and fine-tuning of abilities for intercultural service. Program faculty assumes team leadership and preparation of topics and format, and they each present a summary session on key issues for the entire seminar. Students each present an approved paper on area of interest stemming from studies and intercultural experience. Several weeks may be set aside for specific disciplines to meet separately for capstone discussions in their field. Liberal Arts.

INCL 496 Honors in Intercultural Studies

4-S

Liberal Arts.

LIN 220 Te Reo Maori Language

1-WSP

“We might ask, “Why choose to learn te reo Maori (the Maori language) if one is only in New Zealand for four months?” The answer lies in the close proximity of language and culture. Te reo Maori and tikanga Maori (Maori culture) are intertwined, and so learning te reo Maori allows students to access tea o Maori (the Maori world) and Maori world views. As students compare tikanga Maori with other cultures within New Zealand and overseas, they’ll develop an understanding of the central roles that language, culture, place and heritage ply in shaping identity and in giving direction and meaning to life.”

LING 220 Introduction to Linguistics

4-F

An introduction to the basic sub-fields of linguistics. Emphasis on phonetics and phonology (the study of sounds and systems of sounds), morphology (the study of word formation), syntax (phrase and sentence formation and function), and semantics (the study of meaning in language), pragmatics (how language is used in wider contexts) and historical linguistics (how language changes over time). Liberal Arts.

LING 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

LING 312 Sociolinguistics

4-S16

Explores the sociology of language, focusing on language use patterns in multilingual societies around the world; language maintenance and death, language attitudes, internal and external language change, the development of pidgins and creoles, endangered languages, language documentation, development and revitalization. Liberal Arts.

LING 322 Phonetics

4-F

An introduction to the theory and practice of articulatory phonetics; students learn to produce, perceive and transcribe with symbols all sounds known to be used in human language; intensive drill in definition, recognition, production, and transcription of the whole range of sounds used in human speech. Liberal Arts.

LING 323 Phonology I

4-S

Explores sound systems of the world’s languages with a focus on identifying and analyzing phenomena including: consonants, vowels, syllables, tone, intonation, stress, length of consonants and vowels, the organization of sound systems, and how sounds affect one another; the examination includes detailed discussion of discovery procedures and theoretical perspectives which provide an analytical framework. (Prerequisite/Co-requisite: LING 322 Phonetics, or permission of instructor.) Liberal Arts.

LING 333 Grammar I

4-F15

Explores grammar in the world’s languages from a functional and typological theoretical perspective, focusing on techniques for identifying, understanding, and analyzing the variety of grammatical patterns attested throughout the world. The course provides a solid grounding in major issues of syntactic theory concerning linguists today. Liberal Arts.

LING 350 First and Second Language Acquisition

4-S16

Explores linguistic, psychological, and sociocultural contexts of language acquisition as well as implications for both formal and informal language teaching and learning. In addition to course readings and class discussions, students examine areas of language acquisition theory through their own research and writing. Liberal Arts.

LING 351 Linguistics for TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages)

4-F16

Examines some of the unique challenges facing English language learners through an exploration of English phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic phenomena; Study includes transfer problems between other languages and English and the implications for teaching English in multiple contexts.

Prerequisite Courses: LING 220

LING 355 Theory and Practice of Bilingual Education

3-WSP

Designed as an introduction to bilingual education and bilingualism. Study of the sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic issues that surround bilingualism and bilingual education. An attempt is made to balance the psychological and the sociological, the macro education issues and the micro classroom issues, the linguistic and the sociopolitical, and to balance discussion at the individual and societal levels. Recommended prerequisite: LING 220.

LING 360 Conversational Swahili

2-4-S

will be taught that will meet most conversational needs. The vocabulary will be limited to the kind of words that would commonly be used in rural village life in Tanzania. The focus in class will be on hearing and speaking Kiswahili. Liberal Arts.

LING 370 Understanding English Grammar

4-S17

Explores the grammar of English from a linguistic perspective, utilizing a functional and typological theoretical framework. Students will examine the historical development of English, morphology, lexicon, the ways in which words and morphemes can be combined into phrases, clauses, sentences, and larger units. Students will analyze English data to better understand why speakers of English speak the ways they do. The course also provides a basic overview of syntactic theory and major issues in modern linguistics. Prerequisite: LING 220, or permission of instructor. Liberal Arts.

LING 371 TESOL Methods: ELA

2-F

Examines the language, reading and writing development of English language learners. It explores assessment and instructional methods of teaching English Language Arts to speakers of languages other than English. It also explores ways of creating a classroom learning environment that encourages English language and literacy development for all learners. Prerequisites: LING 220, LING/EDUC 351 and LING 350, or permission of instructor.

LING 372 TESOL Methods: Content Areas

2-F

Explores assessment and instructional methods designed to make content areas (math, science, social studies) concepts comprehensible while promoting English language development.

LING 373 TESOL Field Experience

2-F

Taken concurrently with TESOL Methods: ELA, this weekly practicum provides experience working in both formal and non-formal settings with learners of English as a second language; it provides students completing the Intercultural Studies TESOL Concentration or TESOL Minor an opportunity to gain guided practice in putting their learning into practice. Prerequisites: LING 220, LING 351 and LING 350, or permission of instructor.

LING 389, 489 Intercultural/International Development/Linguistics Internship

1-4-F, S, M, Summer

A practical internship with an organization or ministry that connects service with an intercultural or multicultural setting. Student is to demonstrate the integration of learning and service. Possible for Intercultural, Development, or Linguistics credits. By application only. Can only be done once the required Intercultural/Field Experience has been met. May be repeated.

MISS 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

MISS 241 History of the Global Christian Movement

4-WSP

A study of the expansion and development of the global Christian movement with emphases upon chronological and geographical growth and cross-cultural interchange and partnership from apostolic days to the present. Special attention to connections to issues and relationships in the global church in today’s world. Liberal Arts.

MISS 242 Missions and the Global Church

4-S16

Survey the contemporary state of the global church and its mission; introduction to theology of missions, goals, and strategies; special attention to current trends, issues, and research.

MISS 243 Introduction to Missiological Foundations

4-S17

An introduction to important concepts needed for effective missions ministry. This includes: biblical (Old and New Testament) and theological foundations of mission based on the concept of "missio dei"; an understanding of contextualization studying the interaction of the biblical message within a cultural context (including a range of application from leadership to worship); and other current issues impacting missions ministry.

MISS 295, 395 Special Topics in Missions

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Topics offered according to interest and demand.

MISS 311 Cross Cultural Field Experience

3 or 4-WSP

Introduction to mission work through pre-approved cross-cultural ministry either overseas or in North America. Guided readings and a project are required in consultation with the instructor. INCL 211 Intercultural Transition and Adjustment is recommended.

MISS 341 Biblical and Theological Foundations of Missions

4-wsp

An examination of the biblical foundations of mission based on the concept of missio dei (God’s mission). The course explores the extensive Old Testament roots and the New Testament development of mission with special relevance to global Christian service in missions and other cross-cultural venues. Issues and theological themes of significance to these areas of Christian service are explored.

MISS 342 Contextualization in Missions

4-WSP

Study of the interaction of the biblical message as it comes to life within a cultural context. The primary focus is on the church, but includes the broader understanding of the kingdom of God. Areas of study include theology, leadership, worship, ministry and kingdom living. Both past and present ideas of contextualization are covered. Liberal Arts.

MISS 361 Engaging the Muslim World

4-WSP

For over 1400 years, Islam and Christendom have frequently engaged in rival forms of civilization encounters and/or clashes: invasions, polemics, diplomacy, colonization, dialogue, commerce, and academic research, each according to the context of the era. Relying on comparative, historical and missiological methodologies, students will study the ever-changing yet often-repeated approaches to Muslims in chronological appearance and from various Christian communities: the Oriental churches, the Byzantine Orthodox churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches, with a special emphasis on the current Evangelical ‘contextualized’ approaches. Students will gain a strong confidence and learn wise diplomacy in sharing Jesus to Muslims in a wide variety of means. This course has a fee. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: REL 260

MISS 395 ST: Missions in Africa

2-4-WSP

The Gospel in East Africa. Exploration of the receptivity of African Christians to the Gospel from first hand encounter with African Christians and church leaders. Analysis of traditions, practice, forms and experiences. Also, an examination of strategies for furthering the Gospel including varieties of missionary methods. First hand contact with numerous missionary efforts. Clear view of the impact of Christianity and the ongoing challenges in East Africa. Missions, Intercultural Studies or elective credits. Prerequisite: previous course work in missions or permission of instructor. Optional Houghton in Tanzania Program course.

MISS 440 Unorthodox and Folk Islam

4-WSP

Classical Islam is very resistant to creative theological variants within the Islamic ummah and brands them as deviant heresies, of which Folk Islam is the most common expression. Yet ‘unorthodox’ expressions, even so-called ‘secular Islam’, are far more prevalent forms of Islam among the youth and womenfolk than the orthodox interpretations, and Houghton students and graduates are far more likely to encounter these unorthodox expressions. This requires our students to grasp the diverse roots of widespread Islamic heterodoxy, syncretism, occult expressions, spiritual warfare, and secularism. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: REL 260

MISS 441 Islam in North America

4-May WSP

The Islamic movements in North America are unique in being both very recent and limited to Afro-Americans and immigrants. That is changing given that international funding for a vibrant political Islam in America is among the strongest in emerging religions. Students will explore the various sociological expressions, their political aspirations and their texts. Special attention will be given to various Christian ministries to Muslims in North America. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: REL 260

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