INCL 440 Unorthodox and Folk Islam
Classical Islam is very resistant to creative theological variants within the Islamic ummah and brands them as deviant heresies, of which Folk Islam is the most common expression. Yet ‘unorthodox’ expressions, even so-called ‘secular Islam’, are far more prevalent forms of Islam among the youth and womenfolk than the orthodox interpretations, and Houghton students and graduates are far more likely to encounter these unorthodox expressions. This requires our students to grasp the diverse roots of widespread Islamic heterodoxy, syncretism, occult expressions, spiritual warfare, and secularism. Liberal Arts.