A Christian College of the Liberal Arts & Sciences

Department of Intercultural Studies

view dept. website http://www.houghton.edu/intercultural/department-of-intercultural-studies/

Marcus W. Dean, Chair and Associate Dean

585.567.9634
Overview

The mission of the Intercultural Studies major is to prepare Christians to respond to key problems of global concern in culturally relevant ways that follow kingdom principles. The major, drawing heavily on the methodologies and perspectives of anthropology and related social sciences, integrates the theory of cross-cultural development work with experiential learning in cross-cultural settings. This major will provide competence for students seeking to serve in such fields as community development, relief work, health services, education, missions, and Bible translation in developing countries, multi-cultural contexts in the US, and the inner-city context.

Concentrations are optional. If a concentration is not selected, students will need to choose two electives (see choices below).

Students interested in Education with an Intercultural concentration, please see the Education section of this catalog.

Faculty
Michael Ahland Marcus W. Dean Richard K. Eckley Benjamin Hegeman
Ndunge Kiiti Eli J. Knapp Don B. Little Ronald J. Oakerson
Jamie L. Potter Paul W. Shea
Adjunct/Part-Time Faculty
David A. Brubaker
Courses
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ANTH 195, 295, 395 Special Topics

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

ANTH 225 Intercultural Communication

4-WSP

Explores theory and practice of communicating interculturally. Recommended for those with an interest in international vocations, or in working with ethnic or cultural groups within the United States. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 243 Cultural Anthropology (CDRP, see Foreign Languages)

4-F

Cultural and social aspects of human behavior; comparison of cultures. Community: Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 256 History, Religion, & Society of the Mekong Region

3-F&S

This course provides an introduction of the historical and social context of the Mekong subregion of South East Asia and explores the dynamics between religious, political, and other social foundations and contemporary forces of change. The course begins with a survey of the major religions of the region (chiefly Buddhism and tribal Animism) and their enduring influence of worldview and culture. The course proceeds with a survey of regional history from ancient times (including the La Na kingdom, of particular significance to Chiang Mai’s heritage) through nation building and international relations to the emergence of globalization. Students will be guided to explore the influence of intangible factors on tangible institutions and historical events. The course includes several excursions to nearby sites and guest lectures to ground the knowledge of the Mekong region with an experiential sense of place and perspective. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 291, 391, 491 Independent Studies

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

ANTH 293 East African Cultures

4-S

Intensive study of East African ethnic groups – their beliefs, behaviors, work, societies. Lectures, which include foundational anthropological theory as well as ethnic descriptions, are augmented by observations and home stays amongst the Massai, Kelenjin, Murle, Hehe or other peoples. Sociology, Intercultural Studies elective credit. Houghton in Tanzania Program. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 296 Special Topics in Anthropology

2 or 4-WSP

Topics offered according to interest and demand. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 310 Intercultural Competencies

4-F&S

Explores the knowledge, attitudes, and skills for transitioning into, adapting to, working in, and functioning successfully in an intercultural context. Key topics include cultural values, intercultural communication, researching culture, being a change agent, dealing with conflict, and working with individuals from another culture. Prerequisite for INCL majors/minors: Introduction to Global Issues and Cultural Anthropology, or permission of instructor. Required for INCL 311. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 315 Human Ecology

4-F

Integrates knowledge from several disciplines and seeks to combine the social and natural sciences. Theory will be interwoven with basic concepts and emphasis will be upon how humans view—and interact with—the natural environment. Themes and topics to be studied include: control, complexity/simplification, sustainability, adaptation, place, mechanization, efficiency/inefficiency, centralization/decentralization, resilience, parks, economies of scale, specialization/diversification, and poverty. These themes will be discussed in relation to five basic human societies: hunting & gathering, pastoral, agricultural, industrial, and global. Houghton in Tanzania Program.

ANTH 340 African Traditional Culture and Religion

3-F&S

This course deals with an overview of African traditional cultures and religion (ATR) as well as the challenges African cultures pose to Christians in Africa. Topics to be covered will include: the concept of culture, social groupings, ATR, characteristics of ATR, sources of ATR, African world view, basic values, religious leaders, mystical forces, African religious experience, ethics, ethics and morality, death and hereafter. Attention will also be focused on some specific societies. The changes currently taking place today will also be considered. Liberal Arts.

ANTH 350 Culture Change and Its Effects on Traditional Societies

4-F

Globalization is spreading rapidly around the world, and this is causing significant culture change to traditional societies. With a strong focus on history and case studies, this course will make students aware of what is happening and give them the theoretical knowledge to understand, empathize with, and assist people who are wrestling with change. Pre- or Co-requisite: Cultural Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

ARAB 101 Arabic Language

4-S14, S16

Arabic is spoken in various regional dialects throughout the Arab world. This class introduces Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the commonly understood language used in all media and the academic and intellectual community. While MSA is not the “street language” of any particular country, it provides an excellent grounding towards fluency in any particular dialect in the Arab world. Those who wish to go beyond this one semester introduction will be directed to an intensive Arabic program within the Arab world.

INCL 195, 295, 395, 495 Special Topics

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Topics offered according to interest and demand. Liberal Arts.

INCL 201 Introduction to Global Issues

4-F&S

Focuses on current global trends and issues. Students examine responsible alternatives seen from an interdisciplinary perspective based on biblical justice and mission. Topics include: poverty, disease, hunger, under-development, illiteracy, corruption, climate change, environmental degradation, religious and ethnic conflict. Students examine responses by global Christians both individually and collectively. This is the entry level course for the Intercultural Studies major. Liberal Arts.

INCL 211 Intercultural Transition and Adjustment

1-F&S

Using the transition model for adjusting to another culture, the student is prepared to move into and adjust to another culture and to gain a basic understanding of the culture. Cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural conflict, and cultural values are also examined as they relate to living and working in another culture. Required for Spanish and French majors (they may take the INCL 310 course) and encouraged for any student going on a study abroad experience. Is usually offered as a part of INCL 310 or may be offered as a course by itself in Mayterm. Liberal Arts.

INCL 238 Art and Music in Australia and New Zealand

4-WSP

Art, architecture, and music in context in Australia and New Zealand. Examines the interaction of Western and indigenous cultural styles and the influence of local and national conditions on the arts. Readings, journal-keeping, and questions pertaining to site-specific works are required. Major credit: Intercultural Studies. Culture: Music or Art. Liberal Arts.

INCL 243 Cultural Anthropology (CDRP, see Foreign Languages)

4-F

Cultural and social aspects of human behavior; comparison of cultures. Community: Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

INCL 255 Thai Cultural Arts

3-F&S

This course explores the Thai arts as both cultural expression and cultural epistemology (a way of engaging and knowing the world that differs from Western empiricism and consumerism). It provides hands on experience of the ways in which the arts can serve as an agent of preservation as well as an agent of transformation in culture. It seeks to guide students in the exploration of the spiritual, philosophical, social, and psychological drivers of the cultural arts in order to gain a deeper appreciation of diversity and human creativity. Students will be introduced to a broad array of artistic expression and media in Thailand under the guidance of local experts and artists (including visual arts, music, hand crafts, culinary arts, dance, Likay, and other performing arts). Students will come to appreciate the unique role and effectiveness of the arts in culture (e.g. prophetic confrontation of injustice with the status quo, or communicating in ways that overcome linguistic barriers, etc.) and gain a new sense of value of the arts for their life and work. The course has a high emphasis on participation and reflection. Culture: Art. Liberal Arts.

INCL 256 History, Religion, & Society of the Mekong Region

3-F&S

This course provides an introduction of the historical and social context of the Mekong subregion of South East Asia and explores the dynamics between religious, political, and other social foundations and contemporary forces of change. The course begins with a survey of the major religions of the region (chiefly Buddhism and tribal Animism) and their enduring influence of worldview and culture. The course proceeds with a survey of regional history from ancient times (including the La Na kingdom, of particular significance to Chiang Mai’s heritage) through nation building and international relations to the emergence of globalization. Students will be guided to explore the influence of intangible factors on tangible institutions and historical events. The course includes several excursions to nearby sites and guest lectures to ground the knowledge of the Mekong region with an experiential sense of place and perspective. Liberal Arts.

INCL 291, 391, 491 Independent Studies

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

INCL 301 Engaging Australian and New Zealand Culture

4-WSP

Reading history, literature, and cultural analysis of the various cultures of Australia and New Zealand will combine with relating to locales and people through study, discussion, and service projects. Incorporates travel, homestays, and involvement in local cultural activities. Liberal Arts.

INCL 305 Introduction to Sustainable Community Development

4-

This course explores how knowledge of ecological systems, globalization, political economy, and the biblical worldview come together in the pursuit of development that is community-minded, just, and ecologically sustainable. Through readings, lectures and fieldtrips, studentsstudy complex issues in sustainable development such as the nexus of poverty, the environment, and justice, and the many practical challenges associated with sustainable community development. (Major/minor credit for Sociology, INCL elective or optional elective for Development Concentration, or general elective).

INCL 310 Intercultural Competencies

4-F&S

Explores the knowledge, attitudes, and skills for transitioning into, adapting to, working in, and functioning successfully in an intercultural context. Key topics include cultural values, intercultural communication, researching culture, being a change agent, dealing with conflict, and working with individuals from another culture. Prerequisite for INCL majors/minors: Introduction to Global Issues and Cultural Anthropology, or permission of instructor. Required for INCL 311. Liberal Arts.

INCL 311 Intercultural Experience

0-4-F&S, May, Summer

A cross-cultural experience in an approved setting in an area of service related to student’s concentration or field of interest. Preliminary studies and research, the dynamics of living and serving, ongoing mentorship, and periodic reflection will result in the student completing a cultural profile, journal and summary paper on the experience. This experience may be linked to formal study-abroad programs, official internship affiliation, or pre-approved individual arrangements. Note: Please consult with INCL Department regarding requirements for this course before planning your experience. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 310

INCL 312 Field Experience in Development

2-4-WSP

A cross-cultural experience in an approved setting in the area of International Development. Preliminary studies and research, the dynamics of living and serving, ongoing mentorship, and periodic reflection will result in the student completing an analysis of the development work experienced in relation to its cultural context. The student will also keep a journal during the experience and write a summary paper on the experience in the culture. This experience may be linked to formal study-abroad programs, official internship affiliation, or pre-approved individual arrangements. Note: Please consult with INCL Department regarding requirements for this course before planning your experience. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 310

INCL 314 Exclusion and Exploitation: Marginal people of the Mekong

3-F&S

This course examines the exclusion and exploitation of people in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Topics to be covered include: Identifying the various groups of people who are marginalized in the GMS and the basis of their exclusion (including race, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship, gender, religion, economic status, and other factors); Describing the types of injustice faced (including poverty, human rights violations, discrimination, prejudice, genocide, persecution, labor exploitation, trafficking, prostitution, forced migration of IDPs, refugees and economic refugees); Examining the history, context and causes of exclusion and exploitation; and analyzing indigenous, governmental, NGO, and faith-based responses. Liberal Arts.

INCL 319 Intercultural Practicum

3-F&S

This course in the Go ED program is described as providing "hands on" cross-cultural experience with community development work in the field. Students will be exposed to international development programs and have the opportunity to work in cross-cultural work environments and contribute meaningfully to their assigned program. Students will begin to assess their own ability to live and work in cross-cultural settings as well as be introduced to the challenges faced in the Millennial Development Goals. Potential sites include Thailand, Cambodia, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and other South East Asian countries. Can substitute for INCL 311 for INCL majors/minors and ICE with INCL concentration. Liberal Arts.

INCL 319 Intercultural Practicum

3-F&S

This course in the Go ED program is described as providing "hands on" cross-cultural experience with community development work in the field. Students will be exposed to international development programs and have the opportunity to work in cross-cultural work environments and contribute meaningfully to their assigned program. Students will begin to assess their own ability to live and work in cross-cultural settings as well as be introduced to the challenges faced in the millennial development goals. Available in Ethiopia, Rwanda, Kenya, and Uganda. Can substitute for INCL 311 for INCL majors/minors and ICE with INCL concentration. Liberal Arts.

INCL 322 History of Islamic Theology and Movements

4-S15

Following the death of Muhammad, issues of theological orthodoxy and governmental orthopraxy flourished in a context of conflict and growth. Students will appraise the historical developments of Muhammad’s life and his revelations in the areas of theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, governance, literature, and culture. Relying on primary sources and historical disciplines, students will study the wide history of Islamic thought up until the OPEC crisis of 1973-74. Students will gain a confidence in grasping and discerning the many variants within the so-called unified Islamic ummah. Liberal Arts.

INCL 328 Community and Society in Australia and New Zealand

4-WSP

Examines social institutions in urban Australia and New Zealand. Analyzes social problems and institutional and community responses by churches and faith-based organizations, and compares them with those of governments, non-government organizations and prosocial community organizations. Major/minor credit: ministry, missions, urban ministry, psychology, sociology. Community: Psychology or Sociology. Liberal Arts.

INCL 329 Australia and New Zealand Culture through Film

4-WSP

Since creating the first feature-length film in the world, Australian film-makers have examined themselves, their culture, their environment, and their interactions with the rest of the world in varied and distinctive ways, often with a gloss of revealing humor. Through the films studied in this class, students will be introduced to the diversity of Australia and New Zealand culture, from pre-historical aboriginal and Maori to postmodern. Major credit: Intercultural Studies, Psychology, Sociology. Community: Psychology or Sociology. Liberal Arts.

INCL 338 Issues in Development

4-F13

Introduces students to key issues in the development field. Themes such as the environment, global health, conflict, poverty and globalization will be examined for insights into topics including holistic development; asset based approaches and methods; social-economic issues; systems and structures (church, NGOs, international institutions, and governments); policy development; and monitoring and evaluation. Designed within an international development framework. Examines individual, community, and institutional issues. Liberal Arts.

INCL 340 African Traditional Culture and Religion

3-F&S

This course deals with an overview of African traditional cultures and religion (ATR) as well as the challenges African cultures pose to Christians in Africa. Topics to be covered will include: the concept of culture, social groupings, ATR, characteristics of ATR, sources of ATR, African world view, basic values, religious leaders, mystical forces, African religious experience, ethics, ethics and morality, death and hereafter. Attention will also be focused on some specific societies. The changes currently taking place today will also be considered. Liberal Arts.

INCL 342 Contextualization in Missions

4-F14

Study of the interaction of the biblical message as it comes to life within a cultural context. The primary focus is on the church, but includes the broader understanding of the kingdom of God. Areas of study include theology, leadership, worship, ministry and kingdom living. Both past and present ideas of contextualization are covered. Liberal Arts.

INCL 345 Peacebuilding: Genocide and Religious Diversity

3-F&S

Students will study the ethnic conflicts of Rwanda as a means of learning issues in the healing of trauma (both personal and social) and the processes of building peace and establishing reconciliation. The history of Rwanda is important in understanding the basis of genocide. As students learn about the reconstruction process, they will discover the roles played by the state, church and nongovernmental organizations. Students will also consider the current social challenges brought on by the increasing presence of Islam in Rwanda and discuss the role of the international community both during the genocide and during the rebuilding process. Students will have the opportunity to interact with individuals who have experienced these human tragedies. Liberal Arts.

INCL 346 Governance and Development

4-F13

A study of patterns of governance and politics typical of developing countries with an emphasis in relation-ships between governance and development. Liberal Arts.

INCL 347 Development Communication and Grant Writing

4-S14

Examines the various theories, methods/approaches, and processes that are used in the development communication field. Case studies will be drawn from many development themes including global health (HIV/ AIDS), agriculture, poverty and environment. Emphasis and focus will be on basic principles and values of development communication that challenge the dominant paradigm. Liberal Arts.

INCL 348 Foundations of Health Development

4-May 14

Explores spiritual, historical, cultural, environmental, economic and political factors that often determine the health of individuals and populations. Case studies and experiences will be drawn from all regions of the world with a focus on interventions at community, national and international levels. Topics range from community health development principles, concepts of holism to national and international health policy and partnership issues. Liberal Arts.

INCL 350 Culture Change and Its Effects on Traditional Societies

4-F

Globalization is spreading rapidly around the world, and this is causing significant culture change to traditional societies. With a strong focus on history and case studies, this course will make students aware of what is happening and give them the theoretical knowledge to understand, empathize with, and assist people who are wrestling with change. Pre- or Co-requisite: Cultural Anthropology. Liberal Arts.

INCL 360 Introduction to Islamic Foundations

4-F13

Muhammad’s life and writings are the foundations of Islam. The Islamic faith will be appraised through a historical and primary source approach where students will read through the entire Qur’an in chronological fashion and a significant portion of the Hadiths. The students’ mastery of Muhammad’s life, of Quranic vocabulary and a confident grasp of Quranic theology will give them a strategic appreciation of Islamic history and the present global Muslim community issues. Liberal Arts.

INCL 361 Engaging the Muslim World

4-F14

For over 1400 years, Islam and Christendom have frequently engaged in rival forms of civilization encounters and/or clashes: invasions, polemics, diplomacy, colonization, dialogue, commerce, and academic research, each according to the context of the era. Relying on comparative, historical and missiological methodologies, students will study the ever-changing yet often-repeated approaches to Muslims in chronological appearance and from various Christian communities: the Oriental churches, the Byzantine Orthodox churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches, with a special emphasis on the current Evangelical ‘contextualized’ approaches. Students will gain a strong confidence and learn wise diplomacy in sharing Jesus to Muslims in a wide variety of means. This course has a fee. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 360

INCL 381 Social Context for Community Development

3-F&S

This course is an introduction to development and development theory. Students will acquire knowledge of and the ability to apply a variety of development strategies and methods. During the field component of the course students will be exposed to programming and sites where they will be able to apply the content material for assessing and recommending program alterations within the context of specific communities. Students will become acquainted with the Millennial Development Goals and their relevance to the area situations. Students will be exposed to a variety of strategies designed to involve members of the community in the process of development. Strategies for funding community development projects locally and internationally are explored. Liberal Arts.

INCL 381 Social Context for Community Development

3-F&S

This course is an introduction to development and development theory. Students will acquire knowledge of and the ability to apply a variety of development strategies and methods. During the field component of the course students will be exposed to programming and sites where they will be able to apply the content material for assessing and recommending program alterations within the context of specific communities. Students will become acquainted with the Millennial Development Goals and their relevance to area situations. Students will be exposed to a variety of strategies designed to involve members of the community in the process of development. Strategies for funding community development projects locally and internationally are explored. Liberal Arts.

INCL 440 Unorthodox and Folk Islam

4-F15

Classical Islam is very resistant to creative theological variants within the Islamic ummah and brands them as deviant heresies, of which Folk Islam is the most common expression. Yet ‘unorthodox’ expressions, even so-called ‘secular Islam’, are far more prevalent forms of Islam among the youth and womenfolk than the orthodox interpretations, and Houghton students and graduates are far more likely to encounter these unorthodox expressions. This requires our students to grasp the diverse roots of widespread Islamic heterodoxy, syncretism, occult expressions, spiritual warfare, and secularism. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 360

INCL 441 Islam in North America

4-M14

The Islamic movements in North America are unique in being both very recent and limited to Afro-Americans and immigrants. That is changing given that international funding for a vibrant political Islam in America is among the strongest in emerging religions. Students will explore the various sociological expressions, their political aspirations and their texts. Special attention will be given to various Christian ministries to Muslims in North America. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 360

INCL 442 Globalization and Islamization

4-S16

Among the three most vibrant international movements in the emerging 21st century are Christianity, Islam and Globalization, and the most contested nexus are in the techno-secularized cities of the world. Students will focus specifically on the post-colonial conflicts and integration efforts of Muslims in the global communities, and the impact of Globalization on Islamic societies. Attention will be given to recent international clashes between globalized secularism and Muslims, various political and Christian responses and the need for a Christ-centered confident response to both Globalization and Islamization. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: INCL 360

INCL 482 Senior Capstone: Intercultural Seminar

2-F&S

Joint weekly discussion sessions of all senior majors aimed at reflection on critical broad principles and fine-tuning of abilities for intercultural service. Program faculty assumes team leadership and preparation of topics and format, and they each present a summary session on key issues for the entire seminar. Students each present an approved paper on area of interest stemming from studies and intercultural experience. Several weeks may be set aside for specific disciplines to meet separately for capstone discussions in their field. Liberal Arts.

INCL 484 Integrative Senior Seminar

4 or 6-WSP

Student will participate in the Senior Seminar for the INCL major and the companion major. In cooperation with the advisor of each major the student will develop one research project that meets the requirements for each major.

INCL 496 Honors in Intercultural Studies

4-S

Liberal Arts.

LING 101 Arabic Language

4-S14, S16

Arabic is spoken in various regional dialects throughout the Arab world. This class introduces Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the commonly understood language used in all media and the academic and intellectual community. While MSA is not the “street language” of any particular country, it provides an excellent grounding towards fluency in any particular dialect in the Arab world. Those who wish to go beyond this one semester introduction will be directed to an intensive Arabic program within the Arab world.

LING 220 Introduction to Linguistics

4-F

An introduction to the basic elements of linguistics. Emphasis on phonology (the study of sounds), morphology (the study of word formation), syntax (phrase and sentence formation), and semantics (meaning in language). Liberal Arts.

LING 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

LING 312 Sociolinguistics

4-S14

Focuses on language use patterns in multilingual societies: language maintenance and death; language attitudes; language planning; Pidgins and Creoles. Liberal Arts.

LING 323 Phonology I

4-S14

The principles involved in the analysis of sound systems with extensive practice in the phonological analysis of material from a wide variety of languages. (Prerequisite/Co-requisite: LING 322 Phonetics, or permission of instructor.) Liberal Arts.

LING 333 Grammar I

4-F14

Principles and techniques of the analysis of morphological and syntactic structures of language. Liberal Arts.

LING 350 First and Second Language Acquisition

4-S14

Explores linguistics, psychology, and social contexts of language acquisition, along with instructional and policy implications for schooling in multilingual settings. In addition to course readings and class discussions, students examine the claims of language acquisition theory through guided interactions with language learners and by conducting small-scale experiments. Liberal Arts.

LING 351 Linguistics for TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages)

4-F14

This course will examine some of the unique challenges of English structure (phonological, morphological, syntactical, semantics and pragmatics) and the transfer problems that non-native speakers may have.

Prerequisite Courses: LING 220

LING 355 Theory and Practice of Bilingual Education

3-4-WSP

Designed as an introduction to bilingual education and bilingualism. Study of the sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic issues that surround bilingualism and bilingual education. An attempt is made to balance the psychological and the sociological, the macro education issues and the micro classroom issues, the linguistic and the sociopolitical, and to balance discussion at the individual and societal levels. Recommended prerequisite: LING 220.

LING 360 Conversational Swahili

2-4-F

will be taught that will meet most conversational needs. The vocabulary will be limited to the kind of words that would commonly be used in rural village life in Tanzania. The focus in class will be on hearing and speaking Kiswahili. Liberal Arts.

LING 370 Understanding English Grammar

4-F13

This course focuses on a linguistics approach to the essentials of English structure, i.e., information about English words, sentences, and sounds in a way that should be comprehensible to English speakers with some linguistic background. This course will help students understand some of the basic concepts of modern linguistics. Prerequisite: LING 220, or permission of instructor. Liberal Arts.

LING 371 TESOL Methods: ELA

2-F

Examines the language, reading and writing development of English language learners. It explores assessment and instructional methods of teaching English Language Arts to speakers of languages other than English. It also explores ways of creating a classroom learning environment that encourages English language and literacy development for all learners. Prerequisites: LING 220, LING/EDUC 351 and LING 350, or permission of instructor.

LING 373 TESOL Field Experience

2-F

Taken concurrently with TESOL Methods: ELA, this weekly practicum experience working in a non-formal setting with adult learners of English as a second language provides students completing the Intercultural Studies TESOL Concentration or TESOL Minor an opportunity to put their learning into practice. Prerequisites: LING 220, LING/EDUC 351 and LING 350, or permission of instructor.

MISS 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

MISS 241 History of the Global Christian Movement

4-F

A study of the expansion and development of the global Christian movement with emphases upon chronological and geographical growth and cross-cultural interchange and partnership from apostolic days to the present. Special attention to connections to issues and relationships in the global church in today’s world. Liberal Arts.

MISS 242 The Contemporary Church in Missions

4-S

Survey the contemporary state of the global church and its mission; introduction to theology of missions, goals, and strategies; special attention to current trends, issues, and research.

MISS 311 Cross Cultural Field Experience

3 or 4-WSP

Introduction to mission work through pre-approved cross-cultural ministry either overseas or in North America. Guided readings and a project are required in consultation with the instructor. INCL 211 Intercultural Transition and Adjustment is recommended.

MISS 322 History of Islamic Theology and Movements

4-S15

Following the death of Muhammad, issues of theological orthodoxy and governmental orthopraxy flourished in a context of conflict and growth. Students will appraise the historical developments of Muhammad’s life and his revelations in the areas of theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, governance, literature, and culture. Relying on primary sources and historical disciplines, students will study the wide history of Islamic thought up until the OPEC crisis of 1973-74. Students will gain a confidence in grasping and discerning the many variants within the so-called unified Islamic ummah. Liberal Arts.

MISS 325 Life in the City

3-F&S

The theme of urban life and mission as related to the sociology and psychology of the city is developed, focusing on life and ministry in the complexity and diversity of New York State’s second largest city. Houghton College City Semester program. Liberal Arts.

MISS 328 Community and Society in Australia and New Zealand

4-WSP

Examines social institutions in urban Australia and New Zealand. Analyzes social problems and institutional and community responses by churches and faith-based organizations, and compares them with those of governments, non-government organizations and prosocial community organizations. Major/minor credit: ministry, missions, urban ministry, psychology, sociology. Community: Psychology or Sociology. Liberal Arts.

MISS 341 Biblical and Theological Foundations of Missions

4-F13

An examination of the biblical foundations of missions. Through inductive Bible study and other methods and emphasis on the biblical narrative, the course will explore the extensive Old Testament roots and New Testament development of mission theology and themes especially in the book of Acts. It will build toward a biblical view of culture, the nature and function of the church, and other relevant topics. Spiritual formation is enhanced by both mentoring and group study. No IS credit. Liberal Arts.

MISS 342 Contextualization in Missions

4-F14

Study of the interaction of the biblical message as it comes to life within a cultural context. The primary focus is on the church, but includes the broader understanding of the kingdom of God. Areas of study include theology, leadership, worship, ministry and kingdom living. Both past and present ideas of contextualization are covered. Liberal Arts.

MISS 360 Introduction to Islamic Foundations

4-F13

Muhammad’s life and writings are the foundations of Islam. The Islamic faith will be appraised through a historical and primary source approach where students will read through the entire Qur’an in chronological fashion and a significant portion of the Hadiths. The students’ mastery of Muhammad’s life, of Quranic vocabulary and a confident grasp of Quranic theology will give them a strategic appreciation of Islamic history and the present global Muslim community issues. Liberal Arts.

MISS 361 Engaging the Muslim World

4-F14

For over 1400 years, Islam and Christendom have frequently engaged in rival forms of civilization encounters and/or clashes: invasions, polemics, diplomacy, colonization, dialogue, commerce, and academic research, each according to the context of the era. Relying on comparative, historical and missiological methodologies, students will study the ever-changing yet often-repeated approaches to Muslims in chronological appearance and from various Christian communities: the Oriental churches, the Byzantine Orthodox churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches, with a special emphasis on the current Evangelical ‘contextualized’ approaches. Students will gain a strong confidence and learn wise diplomacy in sharing Jesus to Muslims in a wide variety of means. This course has a fee. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: MISS 360

MISS 395 Special Topics in Missions

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Topics offered according to interest and demand.

MISS 395 ST: Missions in Africa

2-4-WSP

The Gospel in East Africa. Exploration of the receptivity of African Christians to the Gospel from first hand encounter with African Christians and church leaders. Analysis of traditions, practice, forms and experiences. Also, an examination of strategies for furthering the Gospel including varieties of missionary methods. First hand contact with numerous missionary efforts. Clear view of the impact of Christianity and the ongoing challenges in East Africa. Missions, Intercultural Studies or elective credits. Prerequisite: previous course work in missions or permission of instructor. Optional Houghton in Tanzania Program course.

MISS 440 Unorthodox and Folk Islam

4-F15

Classical Islam is very resistant to creative theological variants within the Islamic ummah and brands them as deviant heresies, of which Folk Islam is the most common expression. Yet ‘unorthodox’ expressions, even so-called ‘secular Islam’, are far more prevalent forms of Islam among the youth and womenfolk than the orthodox interpretations, and Houghton students and graduates are far more likely to encounter these unorthodox expressions. This requires our students to grasp the diverse roots of widespread Islamic heterodoxy, syncretism, occult expressions, spiritual warfare, and secularism. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: MISS 360

MISS 441 Islam in North America

4-May14

The Islamic movements in North America are unique in being both very recent and limited to Afro-Americans and immigrants. That is changing given that international funding for a vibrant political Islam in America is among the strongest in emerging religions. Students will explore the various sociological expressions, their political aspirations and their texts. Special attention will be given to various Christian ministries to Muslims in North America. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: MISS 360

MISS 442 Globalization and Islamization

4-S16

Among the three most vibrant international movements in the emerging 21st century are Christianity, Islam and Globalization, and the most contested nexus are in the techno-secularized cities of the world. Students will focus specifically on the post-colonial conflicts and integration efforts of Muslims in the global communities, and the impact of Globalization on Islamic societies. Attention will be given to recent international clashes between globalized secularism and Muslims, various political and Christian responses and the need for a Christ-centered confident response to both Globalization and Islamization. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: MISS 360

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