A Christian College of the Liberal Arts & Sciences

Department of Biblical Studies, Theology and Philosophy


Terence P. Paige, Biblical Studies Coordinator | Carleton D. Fisher, Philosophy Coordinator | Richard K. Eckley, Theology Coordinator | J. Michael Walters, Associate Dean and Christian Formation Coordinator

585.567.9460
Faculty
Jonathan P. Case Sarah B. C. Derck Richard K. Eckley Carlton D. Fisher
Kristina LaCelle-Peterson Benjamin J. B. LipscombTerence P. Paige William Christopher Stewart
J. Michael Walters
Courses
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BIBL 101 Biblical Literature

4-F&S & May

Survey of the types of literature found in the Bible. Considers the origin of the biblical texts and canon; basic issues of interpretation (hermeneutics); and an outline of the history of Israel and of the New Testament church as a backdrop for the message. Literary, historical, and theological aspects of selected texts will be explored. This is a prerequisite for all Bible courses and THEL 209 unless Bible competency is met. Faith Foundation: Bible. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

BIBL 221 Biblical Interpretation

4-F

A survey of the history of interpreting scripture and various methods used, from ancient to postmodern. Students will practice on various texts and consider issues of application. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 231 Pentateuch

4-S

Analysis of critical and historical background, literary content, and development of the religion of Israel. Relevancy of contents. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 233 Jesus and the Gospels

4-F

Jesus’ life and teaching, with emphasis on his eschatology and ethics; the theological distinctives of the Gospel writers; and consideration of some critical issues in interpretation. Focus is mainly on the synoptic gospels. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 251 Bible History and Geography

4-WSP

Study of the history of the Jewish people and surrounding civilizations. Old and New Testament backgrounds. Intensive study of the geography of the Holy Land. No IS credit. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 261 Holy Land Tour

4-WSP

Through visits to cultural, historical, and archaeological sites in Israel, biblical history and geography will be elucidated. Visits will be preceded by lectures and the reading of preparatory materials and followed by lectures and discussions. No IS credit. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 270 Old Testament Historical Books

4-F

Study of the 12 Books of History, including Joshua through Esther. Integrates critical, analytical, and devotional approaches, and combines inductive and lecture methods. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 272 Gospel and Epistles of John

4-WSP

John’s gospel and epistles analyzed from a literary and theological perspective, with attention also to historical questions and to the nature of the Johannine community. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 275 Women in the Bible

4-WSP

Examines biblical material that depicts the experiences of women or deals with teaching about women as a class. Explores the main social, political and religious arrangements which affected the lives of women in Scripture. Using various interpretive approaches, it considers the significance of the texts about women in their historical context and for people in the redeemed community in the current era. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 280 Poetic Books

4-WSP

Consideration of the structure and contents of Hebrew poetry and wisdom literature with a comparative study of similar genre of literature in the Near East. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 282 Pauline Epistles

4-S

Brief overview of Paul’s life followed by survey of Pauline letters (Romans-Philemon). Literary and historical analyses, occasionally supplemented by other types of study, will be used to understand Paul’s message and the theology of the letters. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 310 Old Testament Prophets I

4-F

A study of the prophets during the period of the Monarchy as recounted in the historical books and the prophetic books of the 8th-7th centuries B.C., during the period of the Assyrian Empire (Isaiah, Hosea, Amos, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah). Covers historical context, and literacy and theological issues. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 312 Old Testament Prophets II

4-S

Study of the prophets from the end of the 7th through the 5th centuries B.C., during the period of the Babylonian and Persian empires (Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi). Covers historical context, and literary and theological issues of the books. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 335 General Epistles

4-S

Historical and exegetical treatment of the books of Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, and Jude, focusing on key passages, theology, and problems of interpretation and application. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 351 Revelation

4-WSP

An exegetical survey of the Book of Revelation. We will study the literary nature of the book, its historical context, the social conditions of the recipient churches, and the application of Revelation to the modern church. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 355 Biblical Theology I

2-S14

Examination of the teaching of the Old Testament, developed from the distinctive perspective of Biblical theology. Major themes and methods of inquiry. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 356 Biblical Theology II

2-S15

Examination of the teaching of the New Testament, developed from the distinctive perspective of Biblical theology. Major themes and methods of inquiry. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 360 Science and Scripture

4-WSP

Examination of the historic and current relationship between science and Scripture with a challenge of the "warfare" model that developed in the aftermath of the Darwinian controversy. A careful analysis of both science and Scripture will be made. Attention will be given to four possible ways of relating: Conflict, Contract, Contact, or Confirmation. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 361 Job

4-WSP

Historical, doctrinal, and cultural study of the book; special attention to the problem of human suffering, the afterlife in the Old Testament, and the concept that success indicates divine favor. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 363 Dead Sea Scrolls

4-WSP

Study of their discovery, their contents, their importance, their contribution to textual criticism and their influence on Judaism and Christianity; attention given to the community from which they came. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 371 Book of Acts

4-WSP

Study of the book of Acts from literary, historical, and theological perspectives. Attention will be given to early church growth and contemporary relevance. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 395 Special Topics in Bible

2 or 4-WSP

Study of select blocks or groups of Scripture related to a particular topic or theme. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 410 Isaiah

2-WSP

A study of the historical, critical, and contextual issues, with an emphasis on a vital faith to our generation. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 412 Jeremiah

2-WSP

Historical, cultural background, structure and contents of Jeremiah will be studied. Attention given to Jeremiah’s influence on his contemporaries and the relevance of his message for our time. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 451 Romans

2-WSP

Detailed exegetical examination of Romans, emphasizing literary and theological analyses which are formed by the context of first-century culture. Explores history of interpretation issues, developments in contemporary Pauline studies that are related to the letter, & application to contemporary life. Prerequisite: one other Bible course, 200-level or higher. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 453 1 Corinthians

2-WSP

An intensive study of the literary structure, the historical setting, and the theology of 1 Corinthians. Prerequisite: one other Bible course, 200-level or higher. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 482 Senior Capstone: Senior Seminar in Bible

2-S

A discussion course focused on individual student projects addressing themes, issues, or problems that bring together biblical material, the Christian tradition, and contemporary concerns. Required of all Bible majors. Liberal Arts.

BIBL 496 Honors in Bible

4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

CHMN 251 Internship

2-F/S

A field experience in a church or a church-related organization during the student’s second year or during Mayterm.

CHMN 252 Internship

2-S/May

A field experience in a church or a church-related organization during the student’s second year or during Mayterm.

CRFM 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

CRFM 227 Sports Ministry: The Integration of Faith and Sport

4-S15

Students will develop an understanding of the sports culture and will learn how the gospel can be effectively communicated within this context. They will consider sociological factors, historic developments and the Biblical text in order to build a theological foundation for the practice of sports ministry. Church and parachurch organizations will be examined as well as evangelism and discipleship methodologies. Students will practice communication skills within sports ministry settings.

CRFM 231 Foundations of Educational Ministry

2-F13

Historical, philosophical, and theological developments of religious and Christian education in relation to the practice of ministry.

CRFM 275 Methods & Administration of Sports Ministry

2-S14

Students will evaluate sports ministry strategies within local church, parachurch, mission and educational settings. They will review and develop curriculum and programs for use within these settings. Students will develop communication skills for a sports audience and will examine evangelism and discipleship methods.

CRFM 325 Bible Study and Teaching Methods

4-S

Survey of methods of Bible study and approaches to teaching/learning. Emphasizes lesson design, planning and presentation, small group leadership, curricula.

CRFM 331 Christian Formation of Children

2-F13

To gain an understanding of the process of faith formation during childhood and to examine effective methods for fostering this formation both in and around the faith community.

CRFM 332 Christian Formation of Youth

2-S14

An examination of the theory and practice behind guiding the spiritual lives of adolescents with particular emphasis upon the evangelistic and nurturing (discipling) tasks. Time-tested and innovative practices of adolescent spirituality will be covered. An overview of adolescent culture will be given, aimed at enabling spiritual directors of youth to understand some of the unique elements of enabling the faith journeys of young people.

CRFM 333 Christian Formation of Adults

2-F13

To gain an understanding of the process of adult faith formation in the various adult phases of life (young, middle, older) and to examine effective methods for fostering this formation, both in and around the faith community.

CRFM 341 Theological Explorations in Youth Cultures and Ministry I

2-F14

A theological investigation into the religious and spiritual life of American youth, with special reference to the contexts of family, peer relationships, school and church. This course asks questions of the order: ‘What does the religious and spiritual landscape of American young people in early 21st century look like? How do young people relate to organized religion? How is the current interest in spirituality related to the search for meaning in their lives? What connections do young people make between religion or spirituality and social concerns? How can this religious and spiritual interest and impetus be theologically engaged from a Christian perspective, with a view to effective youth ministry?'

CRFM 342 Theological Explorations in Youth Cultures and Ministry II

2-F14

Helps students develop the skills to critically engage, from a Christian theological perspective, popular culture ‘texts’ (e.g., films, television shows, music) and trends (e.g., networked publics, body modification), with a view to effective youth ministry.

CRFM 350 Foundations of Youth Ministry

2-S14

Eclectic, descriptive, and critical examination of theory and practice of contemporary youth evangelism and discipleship in selected church and parachurch models, including denominational programs, Campus Life, and Young Life.

CRFM 442 Internship in Christian Formation

4-F/S

Supervised field experience in a church or parachurch agency combining academic work with practical and professional responsibilities and relationships. Prerequisites: Courses listed below or permission of the Christian Formation advisor.

Prerequisite Courses: CRFM 325, MIN 210

CRFM 482 Senior Capstone: Senior Seminar in Christian Formation

2-S

A senior capstone colloquium required of all students with a major in Religion or Christian Formation.

CRFM 496 Honors in Christian Formation

4-S

GREK 101 Beginning Greek Level 1

4-F13

Elements of the Koine Greek language. Stress on facility in reading selections from New Testament and Hellenistic literature. Cultural backgrounds in Greek civilization. This course or its equivalent is a prerequisite for all other Greek courses. Liberal Arts.

GREK 102 Beginning Greek Level 2

4-S14

Elements of the Koine Greek language. Stress on facility in reading selections from New Testament and Hellenistic literature. Cultural backgrounds in Greek civilization. Foreign Language Competency.

Prerequisite Courses: GREK 101

GREK 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

GREK 201 Greek Readings

2-WSP

Readings in New Testament Greek. May include selections from the Septuagint or other Hellenistic Greek texts. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: GREK 101 , GREK 102

HEBR 101 Beginning Hebrew Level 1

4-S14

Elements of Biblical Hebrew. Reading from Old Testament. Liberal Arts.

HEBR 102 Beginning Hebrew Level 2

4-S15

Elements of Biblical Hebrew. Reading from Old Testament. Foreign Language Competency. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: HEBR 101

HEBR 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

HEBR 201 Hebrew Readings

2-WSP

Readings in Biblical Hebrew. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: HEBR 101 , HEBR 102

MIN 210 Introduction to Christian Ministries

2-F13 & alternate years

Investigation of the Biblical, historical, and practical foundations for ministry as essential components of Christian vocation. Lay and professional aspects of ministry are explored in the context of the vocational call. A broad overview of ministry-related fields will be presented, including parish, educational, cross-cultural, and parachurch ministries. This course is recommended for anyone who is interested in any form of full-time ministry.

MIN 316 Worship in the Church

4-F14, F16

An introduction to liturgical theology including explorations into the Biblical and theological foundations for worship and the sacramental life of the church. Special emphasis is given to the task of contextualization in planning worship services, and examining the pastoral role in the church’s liturgical life and witness.

MIN 317 Leadership in the Church

4-S15, S17

Study of the pastoral office as it relates to the roles of counselor and administrator. Theories and techniques of pastoral counseling are considered. The administrative duties of the pastor are emphasized, with particular focus on church management, Parliamentary Law, and The Discipline of The Wesleyan Church.

MIN 324 Principles of Expository Preaching

4-S

Focus is on the preparation and delivery of sermons. Combines the theory of organizational structure along with the tools and techniques for biblically-based preaching. Includes practice in preparing and preaching various types of expository sermons. Prerequisite: Presentational Speaking or permission.

MIN 325 Life in the City

3-F&S

The theme of urban life and mission as related to the sociology and psychology of the city is developed, focusing on life and ministry in the complexity and diversity of New York State’s second largest city. Houghton College City Semester program. Liberal Arts.

MIN 328 Community and Society in Australia and New Zealand

4-WSP

Examines social institutions in urban Australia and New Zealand. Analyzes social problems and institutional and community responses by churches and faith-based organizations, and compares them with those of governments, non-government organizations and prosocial community organizations. Major/minor credit: ministry, missions, urban ministry, psychology, sociology. Community: Psychology or Sociology. Liberal Arts.

MIN 410 Ministerial Field Education

4-Summer

Professional field experience in a local church during a summer internship. Combines theory and practice of ministry through seminars and on-site supervision; focuses upon pastor as worship leader and pastor as shepherd.

PHIL 191, 291, 391, 491 Independent Study

2 or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

PHIL 202 Metaphysics, Morality, and Mind

4-F&S

Critical analysis of the contours of a world and life view coupled with more detailed critical analysis of perennial and foundational issues in epistemology (the nature of truth and knowledge), metaphysics (the nature of reality: persons, the world, and God), and ethics (the nature of goodness and the process of ethical decision making, with close attention to character - virtue and vice - and the foundations of morality). Culture: Philosophy. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 203 Theism, Naturalism and the Sciences

4-F

Detailed critical analysis of foundational issues in epistemology (how we know), metaphysics (the nature of reality), and ethics (character and values), with particular attention to methodological issues pertaining to the sciences, the nature and contours of a worldview, and the relationship between worldviews and the sciences. Reserved for Science Honors students. Culture: Philosophy. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 222 Logic and Critical Thinking

4-S14

Introduction to basic argument analysis and informal fallacies, inductive and deductive argument forms, including the formal languages of modern philosophical logic, such as truth functional propositional logic, predicate logic, and some modal logic. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 243 Ancient Philosophy

4-F13

Survey of history of ideas from the ancient Greeks through the end of the classical period. Primary and secondary source readings by (or about) major figures such as the Pre-Socratics, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hellenistic thinkers (Epicureanism, Stoics, and Skeptics), the Church Fathers & Neo-Platonists. Considers major trends in metaphysics, epistemology & ethics. Culture: Philosophy. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 244 Medieval Philosophy

4-S14

Survey of history of ideas from the end of Classical period through the early Renaissance. Includes primary sources by major figures such as Augustine, Anselm, Islamic Philosophers (Alfarabi, Avicenna, Averroes), Bonaventure, Aquinas, Scotus and Ockham. Consideration of major trends such as faith and reason, realism and nominalism, creation, & religious language. Culture: Philosophy. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 245 Early Modern Philosophy

4-F14

Survey of the history of ideas from the Late Renaissance through the Eighteenth Century. Includes primary and secondary sources by (or about) major (and some minor) figures, such as Machiavelli, Montaigne, Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Spinoza, Berkeley, Hume, Reid and Kant. Considers major movements such as continental rationalism, British empiricism, and natural law and moral sense traditions in ethics and politics. Culture: Philosophy. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 246 Late Modern and Contemporary Philosophy

4-S15

Survey of the history of ideas from the Late Modern Period (post-Kantian European philosophy) through the present. Includes primary and secondary sources by (or about) major figures such as Hegel, Mill, Marx, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Husserl, Peirce, James, Dewey, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, Sartre, Quine, Rawls, Foucault, Derrida, Rorty, Pragmatism, Positivism and Postmodernism. Culture: Philosophy. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 250 Aesthetics

2-WSP

A philosophical study of art and aesthetic experience focusing on the value of art for human life, rather than the more narrow (and less useful) question of the definition of art. Explores the relative importance to a normative theory of art of such values as pleasure, beauty, expression of emotion, and understanding, and examines how these values can be embodied by various art forms, such as visual art, music, literature, the performing arts (dance and theater), and architecture. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 260 Introduction to Political Thought

4-F14

Introduces students to Western political thought from the ancient to the modern world through a close reading of important thinkers. By considering problems of community, obligation, order, justice, liberty, and freedom, the course equips students for careful normative reflection on public life. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 290, 390, 490 Special Topics

2 or 4-WSP

Examination of specific movements or particular problems in philosophy, or themes in the history of ideas. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 300 Christianity, Postmodernism, and Beyond

4-F13

Explores relationship between Christian faith and practice and postmodern culture. Primary & secondary readings drawn from a variety of disciplines and sources explore the implications of postmodernism for church, individuals, the media & popular culture. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 306 Varieties of Postmodernism

3-May, WSP

Interdisciplinary analysis of the many faceted cultural phenomenon known as “postmodernism.” Moves from an initial starting point considering postmodernism as a reaction to various philosophical claims associated with modernity to the meaning and significance of postmodern ideas as they have been transposed into a variety of other contexts in the analytic humanities, literature, arts and sciences. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 322 Philosophy of Law

2-F or S

Introduction to fundamental issues surrounding the concept of law, such as the debate between natural law theorists (who maintain that there is a law above human law) and legal positivists (who deny this), as well as issues such as punishment and the basis of the legitimacy of legislative authority. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 330 Medical Ethics

2-F14

Introduction to contemporary medical ethics, analyzing case studies and philosophical essays on a variety of dilemmas in contemporary medical practice, such as truth-telling and confidentiality, research ethics, reproductive technologies, abortion and embryonic stem-cell research, euthanasia, and physician-assisted suicide. Service in a local health-care setting also possible as a supplement to the course (for additional credit). Liberal Arts.

PHIL 340 The Nature of God

2-F

Introductory course in philosophical theology, focusing on the concept of God. Philosophical analysis of divine attributes (such as God’s power, knowledge, goodness, and relation to time). Liberal Arts.

PHIL 350 Reason and Religious Belief

2-F

Introductory course in religious epistemology, focusing on the sources of religious knowledge and the rationality of religious belief. Philosophical analysis of arguments for God’s existence, the problem of evil, and the roles of faith and reason in religious belief. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 360 History and Philosophy of Science

4-WSP

Survey of the rise of western science from its origins in antiquity to the present, addressing both the content and methods of science in each major period. Major figures considered include Aristotle, Galen, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Boyle, Newton, Lavoisier, Darwin, and Einstein. A wide range of science fields will be surveyed and specific attention is given throughout to the interrelationships between science and other disciplines, the relationship between science and culture, and the interaction of science and religion. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 414 Major Figures

2 or 4-WSP

In‑depth study of the thought of one or more figures with an emphasis on critical analysis and evaluation of primary source material. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 435 Ethical Theory

4-F13

Analysis of traditional normative theories (formalism, consequentialism, and virtue ethics) through the reading of primary sources. Also explores developments in contemporary moral theory. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 445 Religious Epistemology

4-WSP

Seminar examining the epistemology of religious belief via close reading and discussion of historical and contemporary works. Touches on topics such as the rationality of religious belief, theistic arguments (for God’s existence), the problem of evil (and atheistic arguments generally), and faith and reason. The specific issue(s) to be considered will be identified each time the course is scheduled. Repeatable when the topics are diverse. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 455 Aquinas

4-F13

Seminar on the thought of Thomas Aquinas involving a close reading of Aquinas’ most important work, the Summa Theologiae, with occasional supplementation from other relevant primary and secondary literature. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 475 Kierkegaard: A Man for All Disciplines

4-S14

Reading seminar on some key works of the “melancholy Dane,” including (for example) Either/Or, Fear and Trembling, The Sickness Unto Death, the Philosophical Fragments and Concluding Unscientific Postscript. A “man for all disciplines,” Kierkegaard’s writings continue to attract interest for their philosophical and theological insight as well as their literary sophistication. Liberal Arts..

PHIL 485 Issues in Philosophical Theology

4-S14

Seminar in which selected topics in Christian theology are examined via close reading and discussion of historical and contemporary works of philosophical theology. Examples of topics considered: Divine Attributes, Divine Providence (and Human Freedom), God and Ethics, Faith. The specific issue(s) to be considered will be identified each time the course is scheduled. Repeatable when topics are diverse. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 495 Senior Capstone: Philosophy Colloquium

2-S

A required capstone seminar for philosophy majors normally completed in one of the final two semesters of the student's college experience. Prerequisite: A minimum of 18 hours in philosophy. May only be taken once for credit. Liberal Arts.

PHIL 496 Honors in Philosophy

4-S

Liberal Arts.

REL 221 Hinduism and Buddhism

2-F13

Examines the history, major beliefs and current practice of the Indic (Hindu, Buddhist) religious traditions. Special emphasis is given to the Christian encounter with these world faiths. Liberal Arts.

REL 222 New Religious Movements I: Eastern Branches

2-F13

Examines the history and major beliefs of New Religious Movements that take their orientation from, or derive their impetus from critical confrontation with, one of the major Eastern traditions. Movements studied include Theosophy, Transcendental Meditation, Soka Gakkai, New Age. Liberal Arts.

REL 225 Taoism and Confucianism

2-S15

Examines the history, major beliefs and current practice of the Sinic (Taoist and Confucian) religious traditions. Special emphasis is given to the Christian encounter with these faiths. Liberal Arts.

REL 231 Judaism

2-F14

Examines in critical perspective the history and major beliefs of the Semitic religious traditions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Special emphasis is given to the Christian encounter with Judaism and Islam. Liberal Arts.

REL 232 New Religious Movements II: Western Branches

2-F14

Examines the history and major beliefs of New Religious Movements that take their orientation from, or derive their impetus from critical confrontation with, one of the major Western traditions. Movements studied include Jehovah’s Witnesses, Nation of Islam, Satanism, and Wicca. Liberal Arts.

REL 482 Senior Capstone: Seminar in Religion

2-S

A senior capstone colloquium required of all students with a major in religion or Christian Formation. Liberal Arts.

THEL 191, 192; 291, 292; 391, 392; 491, 492 Independent Study

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

THEL 209 Introduction to Christianity

4-F&S

An introductory survey of the main beliefs and practices that constitute the Christian tradition. Christianity will be approached in a way that overcomes the traditional division between doctrine and practice. The Biblical, theological, historical, ethical, and spiritually formative aspects of Christian faith will be explored. The course aims to enable the student to develop a personal theology and life perspective that is informed by Christian faith and Christian spirituality. This course is a prerequisite for all other THEL courses. Faith Foundation: Theology. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: BIBL 101

THEL 210 Theology of Creation

2-S15

Explores the notion of creation from a biblical and theological perspective and examines several contemporary Christian responses to the environmental crisis.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 215 Christian Apologetics

4-S15

The course seeks to “give reason for the faith that is written within us” by making theological reply to those questions raised when Christian faith collides with contemporary situations. Classical and contemporary questions and methodologies will be considered.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 220 History of Christianity

4-F

Examines the ancient, medieval, Reformation and modern development of Christianity in its various contexts. Attention will be given to the lives of prominent men and women as well as doctrines and institutions developed in each era. Connections with current theological issues and church practice will be considered. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 300 Christianity, Postmodernism, and Beyond

4-F13

Explores relationship between Christian faith and practice and postmodern culture. Primary & secondary readings drawn from a variety of disciplines and sources explore the implications of postmodernism for church, individuals, the media & popular culture. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 305 God and Nature

4-

Central to the mission of Creation Care Studies Program, this course helps students to develop a theology of creation that understands humans as stewards of the earth. Through the study of scripture, and other relevant texts, students explore the theology of creation, biblical stewardship, questions of faith and science, and Christian responses to current environmental problems. (THEL credit for major/minor or general elective).

THEL 313 Systematic Theology

4-S

Survey of the main tenets of the Christian faith. Doctrines examined in light of Biblical basis and constructive formulations. Introduces the student to Christian theology and equips the student to develop a personal theology.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 315 Wesleyan Tradition

4-S

Study of the Wesleyan movement from the Wesleys to the present. Emphases on the history of The Wesleyan Church and the doctrine of holiness. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 316 Worship in the Church

4-F14, F16

An introduction to liturgical theology including explorations into the Biblical and theological foundations for worship and the sacramental life of the church. Special emphasis is given to the task of contextualization in planning worship services, and examining the pastoral role in the church’s liturgical life and witness.

THEL 320 Spiritual Formation

4-F13

Examines the nature and process of spiritual growth and maturation in the life of the Christian. As an academic course of study, this class arises out of ascetical theology and thus emphasizes the writings of early, medieval, and later Christians. Primary emphasis is given to the role of the classical spiritual disciplines in the formation of character. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 325 American Church History

4-WSP

Examines the historical and theological roots of the varied Christian traditions in the US. Attention will be given to European traditions transplanted in the new world and to the ways they developed in the American context; also consideration of the indigenous American Christian traditions and the resulting variety of ecclesial configurations. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 333 Major Figures in Theology

2 or 4-WSP

In-depth study of one or more figures in Christian theology with an emphasis upon primary source material for examining the theologians in the context of their lives and times. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 334 Studies in Theology

2 or 4-WSP

Topics of current theological interest. Specific schools of theology, doctrines, or theological trends will be considered.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 337 Theological Foundations of the Family

4-F

Study of major conceptual designs for family. Will emphasize a comparative analysis of religious models and the relationships between these influential systems and family practices. Introduces students to the role of the family in ethical value formation. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 340 The Nature of God

2-F

Introductory course in philosophical theology, focusing on the concept of God. Philosophical analysis of divine attributes (such as God’s power, knowledge, goodness, and relation to time). Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 346 Elements of Catholic, Muslim and Orthodox Theology

4-F

An examination of the development of Catholic and Orthodox theology and practices from the early Middle Ages with a particular emphasis upon major figures, and differences between the traditions. An introduction will be given to Islam with particular attention paid to Christian-Muslim interaction from the seventh century through to modern times and to syncretistic folk religion, the dervish, etc. Houghton Balkans Semester Program.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 350 Reason and Religious Belief

2-F

Introductory course in religious epistemology, focusing on the sources of religious knowledge and the rationality of religious belief. Philosophical analysis of arguments for God’s existence, the problem of evil, and the roles of faith and reason in religious belief. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 368 The Reformation

4-WSP

A survey of the continental, English, and Roman Catholic reformation of the 16th century. Culture: history. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 455 Aquinas

4-F13

Seminar on the thought of Thomas Aquinas involving a close reading of Aquinas’ most important work, the Summa Theologiae, with occasional supplementation from other relevant primary and secondary literature. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 475 Kierkegaard: A Man for All Disciplines

4-S14

Reading seminar on some key works of the “melancholy Dane,” including (for example) Either/Or, Fear and Trembling, The Sickness Unto Death, the Philosophical Fragments and Concluding Unscientific Postscript. A “man for all disciplines,” Kierkegaard’s writings continue to attract interest for their philosophical and theological insight as well as their literary sophistication. Liberal Arts. .

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 485 Issues in Philosophical Theology

4-S14

Seminar in which selected topics in Christian theology are examined via close reading and discussion of historical and contemporary works of philosophical theology. Examples of topics considered: Divine Attributes, Divine Providence (and Human Freedom), God and Ethics, Faith. The specific issue(s) to be considered will be identified each time the course is scheduled. Repeatable when topics are diverse. Liberal Arts.

Prerequisite Courses: THEL 209

THEL 495 Special Topics

1, 2, 3, or 4-WSP

Liberal Arts.

URMN 212 Urban Ministry

4-F

What is the ministry of the church and individual Christians within diverse, complex metropolitan areas? Introduction to the Bible and to research in behavioral sciences on the city with field trips and projects in the community.

URMN 250 Evangelism and Social Action in the Urban Context

3-May

Examination of the biblical basis of evangelism and social justice. Through biblical, historical, and sociological/anthropological analyses and personal observation projects, students will assess ways in which evangelism and social action are related and will have an opportunity to develop their own theology and strategy of outreach. Taught in urban setting.

URMN 300 Urban Ministry Field Experience and Seminar

3-WSP

Supervised field experience in a core-city church or parachurch organization. Seminar with weekly cluster meeting of participating students to synthesize academic and field experience as a group. Requires 120 hours of field work. Prerequisites: URMN 212 and declaration of minor.

URMN 325 Life in the City

3-F&S

The theme of urban life and mission as related to the sociology and psychology of the city is developed, focusing on life and ministry in the complexity and diversity of New York State’s second largest city. Houghton College City Semester program. Liberal Arts.

URMN 328 Community and Society in Australia and New Zealand

4-WSP

Examines social institutions in urban Australia and New Zealand. Analyzes social problems and institutional and community responses by churches and faith-based organizations, and compares them with those of governments, non-government organizations and prosocial community organizations. Major/minor credit: ministry, missions, urban ministry, psychology, sociology. Community: Psychology or Sociology. Liberal Arts.

URMN 350 The City in Biblical and Theological Perspective

4-WSP

In-depth survey of the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation examining the city as symbol and social reality. Analysis of various theological perspectives (Augustine, Ellul, Cox, Mouw, and others). Prerequisite: URMN 212, and declaration of minor.

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